Meetpal S. Kukal, Ph.D.

Meetpal S. Kukal, Ph.D.

  • Assistant Research Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
436 Shortlidge RD
Agricultural Engineering Building, Rm. 224

University Park, PA 16802

Areas of Expertise

  • Agricultural water management & agrohydrology
  • Irrigation science, management, & engineering
  • Sense & model water fluxes in soil-plant-atmospheric continuum
  • Evapotranspiration & its physiological and environmental controls
  • Precision water & nutrient management
  • Agricultural resource (water, radiation, nutrient) use efficiency
  • Agrometeorology; Climate sensitivity & resiliency of ag systems
  • GIS & Remote Sensing applications in agricultural & natural resources


  • Ph.D. Biological Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2019
  • M.S. Ag & Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2015
  • B.Tech. Agricultural Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Punjab, 2013


Climate trends and soybean production since 1970 in Mississippi: Empirical evidence from ARDL model
Science of the Total Environment, Sharma, Ramandeep Kumar, Dhillon, Jagmandeep, Kumar, Pushp, Mulvaney, Michael J., Reed, Vaughn, Bheemanahalli, Raju, Cox, Michael S., Kukal, Meetpal S., Reddy, Krishna N., 2023

Can limits of plant available water be inferred from soil moisture distributions?
Agricultural and Environmental Letters, Kukal, Meetpal S., Irmak, Suat, 2023

Disentangling day–night contributions toward altering atmospheric desiccation strength for US croplands
Journal of Production Agriculture, Kukal, Meetpal Singh, Irmak, Suat, 2023

Drivers of enhanced evaporative demand in U.S. croplands: Determining relative contribution using constrained input scenarios
Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Kukal, M. S., Kukal, S., Irmak, S., Vellidis, G., 2023

Evapotranspiration of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in maize, soybean, and fallow under subsurface drip and center-pivot irrigation systems
Weed Science, Mausbach, Jasmine, Irmak, Suat, Kukal, Meetpal S., Karnik, Kelsey, Sarangi, Debalin, Jhala, Amit J., 2023

Crop Loss and Climate-risk in Pennsylvania
Penn State Extension, Kukal, Meetpal, 2023

Resiliency Against Agricultural Droughts and Excess Water
Penn State Extension, Kukal, Meetpal, 2023

What Do We Know About Water Use of Weeds?
University of Nebraska-Lincoln CropWatch, Kukal, Meetpal, 2023

Transpiration Dynamics in Co-Located Maize, Sorghum, And Soybean Closed Canopies And Their Environmental Controls
Journal of Natural Resources and Agricultural Ecosystems, Irmak, S, Kukal, Meetpal, 2023

Climate, crops, and the Colorado River
Penn State Institute of Energy and the Environment, Kukal, Meetpal, 2023

Effect of water stress on weed germination, growth characteristics, and seed production: a global meta-analysis
Weed Science, Singh, Mandeep, Thapa, Resham, Kukal, Meetpal Singh, Irmak, Suat, Mirsky, Steven, Jhala, Amit J., 2022

Automated real-time irrigation analytics inform diversity in regional irrigator behavior and water withdrawal and use characteristics
Agricultural Water Management, Irmak, Suat, Brar, Dilshad, Kukal, Meetpal S., Odhiambo, Lameck, Djaman, Koffi, 2022

Spatial Patterns and Magnitudes of Agriculturally Pertinent Climate Indicators across Agroecosystems in Türkiye
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Irmak, Suat, Kukal, Meetpal S., Topcu, Sevilay, 2022

Soil moisture heterogeneity and sensor deployment in uniformly managed field with unitextural soil
Journal of Production Agriculture, Irmak, Suat, Kukal, Meetpal S., Sharma, Kiran, 2022

Water Use Characteristics of Weeds: A Global Review, Best Practices, and Future Directions
Frontiers in Plant Science, Singh, Mandeep, Kukal, Meetpal Singh, Irmak, Suat, Jhala, Amit J., 2022

Evapotranspiration, Transpiration, and Evaporation Processes and Modeling in the Soil–Residue–Canopy System
Modeling Processes and Their Interactions in Cropping Systems: Challenges for the 21st Century, First Edition. Edited by Lajpat R. Ahuja, Kurt C. Kersebaum and Ole Wendroth. American Society of Agronomy/Crop Science Society of America/Soil Science Society of America, Irmak, S, Kukal, Meetpal, 2022

Minimizing pitfalls and ensuring success with irrigation-decision technology
Irrigation Today Fall 2022, Kukal, Meetpal, 2022

Water Use Characteristics of Weeds: A Global Review, Best Practices, and Future Directions.
Frontiers in plant science, Singh, Mandeep, Kukal, Meetpal, Irmak, S, Jhala, Amit, 2022

Alteration in Surface Energy Balance Fluxes Induced from Long-Term Disk-Tilled versus No-Till Management in Maize Production  
Soil and Tillage Research, Irmak, S, Kukal, Meetpal, 2022

Soil Moisture Heterogeneity and Sensor Deployment in Uniformly Managed Field with Unitextural Soil
Agronomy Journal, Irmak, S, Kukal, Meetpl, Sharma, Kiran, 2022

Growth phase-specific evaporative demand and nighttime temperatures determine Maize (Zea Mays L.) yield deviations as revealed from a long-term field experiment
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Singh, Arshdeep, Kukal, Meetpal S., Shapiro, Charles A., Snow, Daniel D., Irmak, Suat, Iqbal, Javed, 2021

Evaluation of soil moisture sensing technologies in silt loam and loamy sand soils: Assessment of performance, temperature sensitivity, and site-And sensor-specific calibration functions
Transactions of the ASABE, Sharma, Kiran, Irmak, S, Kukal, Meetpal, Vuran, Mehmet, Jhala, Amit, Qiao, Xin, 2021

Spatio-temporal calibration of Hargreaves-Samani model to estimate reference evapotranspiration across U.S. High Plains
Journal of Production Agriculture, Kukal, M. S., Irmak, S., Walia, H., Odhiambo, L., 2020

Impact of irrigation on interannual variability in United States agricultural productivity
Agricultural Water Management, Kukal, M. S., Irmak, S., 2020

Light interactions, use and efficiency in row crop canopies under optimal growth conditions
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Kukal, M. S., Irmak, S., 2020

Interrelationships between water use efficiency and light use efficiency in four row crop canopies
Agrosystems, Geosciences and Environment, Kukal, Meetpal S., Irmak, Suat, 2020

Disk-till vs. no-till maize evapotranspiration, microclimate, grain yield, production functions and water productivity
Agricultural Water Management, Irmak, Suat, Kukal, Meetpal S., Mohammed, Ali T., Djaman, Koffi, 2019

Characterization of Water Use and Efficiency Dynamics across Four C3 and C4 Row Crops under Optimal Growth Conditions, Kukal, Meetpal, Irmak, S, 2019

Coupled Water and Light Use and Efficiency in Four Row Crops under Optimal Growth Conditions, Kukal, Meetpal, 2019

Irrigation-limited yield gaps: Trends and variability in the united states post-1950
Environmental Research Communications, Kukal, Meetpal S., Irmak, Suat, 2019

Patterns and Magnitudes of Spatial and Temporal Changes in Precipitation and Aridity Across 800 Great Plains Counties, Kukal, Meetpal, Irmak, S, 2018

Long-term spatial and temporal maize and soybean evapotranspiration trends derived from ground-based and satellite-based datasets over the great plains
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering - ASCE, Kukal, Meetpal, Irmak, Suat, Kilic, Ayse, 2017

Observed Space and Time Changes in Air Temperatures and Daily Temperature Range for the Counties in the US Great Plains from 1968 to 2013, Kukal, Meetpal, Irmak, S, 2016

Quantification of spatio-temporal changes in climate variables, evapotranspiration and crop water productivity for maize and soybean in the Great Plains, USA, Kukal, Meetpal, 2015

Standardization of Automated Vario EL III CHNS Analyzer for Total Carbon and Nitrogen Determination in Plants
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Dhaliwal, G. S., Gupta, N., Kukal, S. S., Meetpal-Singh, , 2014