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Eileen E. Fabian (Wheeler), Ph.D.

  • Professor of Agricultural Engineering
  • Environmental Biophysics, Animal Welfare, and Agricultural Emissions
  • Integrated Research and Extension Programs
Eileen E.  Fabian (Wheeler), Ph.D.
101 Research A
University Park, PA 16802
Work Phone: 814-865-3552

Areas of Expertise

  • Air quality in indoor agriculture (barns, poultry houses)
  • Heating and Ventilation system design, principles and practice
  • Horse facility engineering (stables, riding arenas)
  • Farm animal welfare
  • Agricultural air emissions (gas, odor, particulates)

Education

  1. B.S. Pennsylvania State University, Agricultural Engineering - Structures & Environment emphasis 1980
  2. M.S. Cornell University, Agricultural Engineering - Mechanical Engineering minor 1985
  3. Ph.D. Cornell University, Agricultural and Biological Engineering - Plant Physiology & Biological Engineering minors 1995

Extension and Research Links

Gypsum Bedding Factsheets and Webinars

Manure Storage Design and Safety Considerations with Gypsum Bedding (E70)

Resources for Ventilation of Livestock Housing

Research

Current Research Projects

  • Climate change mitigation and adaption in dairy production system in the Great Lakes region.  2013-2018. $10,000,000 [$833,074 to Penn State University]. USDA-National Institute Food and Agriculture-Coordinated Agriculture Project (CAP).

Recently Completed Research Projects

  • Manure gas risk associated with gypsum bedding at dairy farms.  2013-2015. $140,000. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service-Pennsylvania. Conservation Innovation Grant.
  • Assessment of a dry poultry litter soil incorporation technology to protect air and water quality.  $500,000 [$149,000 Penn State University]. 2010-2014. USDA 1890 Institution Teaching and Research Capacity building Grants Program.
  • Odor mitigation potential of proprietary swine manure amendment.  2011-2013. $41,692. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service-Pennsylvania. Conservation Innovation Grant.
  • Odor Emission Evaluations of Dairy Diet and Manure Additives. 2008–2009. $241,683. USDA Special Grant.
  • Odor emission evaluations of dairy nutrient management strategies. 2006–2009. $325,325. USDA Special Grant
  • Integrated strategies for reducing gas emissions from dairy farms. 2005–2008. $332,000. USDA Special Grant
  • Field verification of emissions mitigation methods from laying hen facilities. 2007–2008. $75,000 ($32,000 Penn State). U.S. Poultry & Egg Association
  • Field demonstration of ammonia emission mitigation through dietary strategies for laying hen operations. 2008–2009. $812,998 ($300,000 Penn State). USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Conservation Equipment Grant (CIG)
  • Air quality extension and education. 2006–2009. $500,000 ($25,000 Penn State). USDA National Research Initiative, Air Quality
  • Air quality in Norwegian horse stables. 2008. $14,000. Norwegian Horse Center (International)
  • Odor and Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Amended with UNLOK. 2008. $10,000. AgraKey, Inc.
  • Validation of in situ flux chamber performance for determination of ammonia and odor emissions. 2008. $15,000. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences, Seed Grant.

Completed Research

Principle Investigator

  • Odor-Reduction Wetland Performance. 2003–2004. $52,000. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Comprehensive Odor Reduction Livestock Facility. 2001–2002. $162,946. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Houses by Enhanced Manure and Diet Management. 2001–2004. $270,000 Penn State ($870,000 Total). U.S. Department of Agriculture, IFAFS (U Kentucky, Lead; Iowa State U)
  • Water Flow Evaluation of Broiler Drinker Design. 2005. $5,000. Chore Time, Inc.
  • Comprehensive Odor Reduction Livestock Facility. 2001–03. $162,946. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Pit Fans for Fly Control. 2000. $6,539. Pennsylvania Egg Research Program
  • Summer Ventilation & Heat Stress Management. 2000. $10,459. Pennsylvania Broiler Research Program
  • Odor Control Wetlands for Liquid Swine Manure. 1999–2000. $41,816. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Constructed Wetlands for Clean Greenhouse Wastewater. 1998–99. $58,582. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Pit Ventilation Improvements for Fly Control. 1998–99. $159,887. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Ammonia Control Strategy Cost-Benefits. 1998. $15,000. Pennsylvania Broiler Research Program
  • Winter Ventilation & Fuel Use: An Economic & Productivity Analysis. 1997. $15,686. Pennsylvania Broiler Research Program
  • Layer House Environment Control Strategies for Improved Productivity & Profitability. 1997. $17,654. Pennsylvania Egg Research Program

Co-Investigator

  • Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Farms-Evaluating Whole Farm Strategies. 2004–07. $332,000. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Special Grant
  • Field Olfactometry for Quantifying and Targeting Agricultural Odor Control. 2005–07. $70,240. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Ferric Iron Treatment to Reduce Manure Odors. 2004–06. $170,000. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • CFD Modeling of the Spread of Airborne Diseases in Chicken Houses. 2005. $5000. Penn State Indoor Environment Center Seed Grant
  • The Application of Fenton Reaction for Reducing Manure Odors. 2004–05. $12,000. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences
  • Evaluation of Embryonic Metabolism and Heat Production of High Yielding Broiler Breeds: Single Stage Environment. 2002–04. $45,045. U.S. Poultry & Egg Association
  • Detection of Important Respiratory Irritants in Equestrian Facilities. 2003–04. $42,100. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Enzymatic Deodorization of Swine Manure. 2002–04. $119,000. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Advanced Molecular Analyses of Microbes from Constructed Treatment Wetlands. 2003. $7,250. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State Univ.
  • Deodorization of Livestock and Poultry Manure by Microorganisms. 2001–03. $74,682. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Air Quality Parameters in Animal Housing Facilities. 2000–02. $59,455. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
  • Facility Design & Management Practices for Dairy-Beef & Veal. 1996–99. $141,016. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture

Publications

Books

  • Wheeler E.F. 2006. Horse Stable and Riding Arena Design. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA and Oxford, UK. 308 pp.
  • Wheeler, E., B. Koenig, J. Harmon, P. Murphy and D. Freeman. 2005. Horse Facilities Handbook. MidWest Plan Service, Ames, IA. 232 pp.
  • Roberts, W., J. Bartock, E. Fabian and J. Simpkins. 2001 and 1983. Energy Conservation in Commercial Greenhouses. NRAES-3. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, NY. 1983 original 42 pp. Revised 2001 by J.W. Bartock, 84 pp.

Journals 2000–2015

  • A.N. Histrov, K. Heyler, E. Schurman, K. Griswold, P. Topper, M. Hile, V. Ishler, E. Fabian-Wheeler and S. Dinh. 2015. Case Study: Reducing dietary protein decreased the ammonia emitting potential of manure from commercial dairy farms. Professional Animal Scientist: 31(1): 68-79.

  • Lascano, G.J., A.J. Heinrichs, R.R. Gary, P.A. Topper, R.C. Brandt, A. Adviento-Borbe and E.F. Fabian. 2015. Effects of forage-to-concentrate ratio and dietary fiber manipulations on gas emissions and olfactometry from manure of Holstein heifers. Journal Dairy Science: 98(3): 1928-1937

  • Wheeler, E.F., M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, R.C. Brandt, P.A. Topper, D.A. Topper, H.A. Elliott, R.E. Graves, A.N. Hristov, V.A. Ishler, M.A.V. Bruns. 2011. Amendments for mitigation of dairy manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions: Preliminary screening. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal Volume 13, Issue 2. June.

  • Wheeler, E.F., M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, R.C. Brandt, P.A. Topper, D.A. Topper, H.A. Elliott, R.E. Graves, A.N. Hristov, V.A. Ishler, M.A.V. Bruns. 2011. Evaluation of odor emissions from amended dairy manure: Preliminary screening. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal. Volume 13, Issue 2. June.

  • Wheeler, E. F., P. A. Topper, R. C. Brandt, N. E. Brown, A. Adviento-Borbe, R.S. Thomas, G. A. Varga. 2011. Multiple-chamber instrumentation development for comparing gas fluxes from biological materials. Applied Engineering in Agriculture: 27(6): 1049-1060.

  • Brandt, R.C., H.A. Elliott, M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, E.F. Wheeler, P.J.A. Kleinman and D.B. Beegle. 2011. Field olfactometry assessment of dairy manure land application methods. Journal of Environmental Quality 40:431-437.

  • Brandt, R.C., M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, H.A. Elliott, E.F. Wheeler. 2011. Protocols for reliable field olfactometry odor evaluations. Journal of Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 27(3):457-466.

  • Brandt R. C., H. A. Elliott, M. A. A. Adviento-Borbe, E. F. Wheeler, T. E. Johnston, W. E. Toffey, J. Golembeski. 2010. Statistical Confidence of Field Olfactometry and Biosolids Odor Assessment. Residuals and Biosolids 813-835.

  • Adviento-Borbe, M.A.A., E.F. Wheeler, N.E. Brown, P.A. Topper, R.E. Graves, V.A. Ishler and G.A. Varga. 2010. Ammonia and greenhouse gas flux from manure in freestall barn with dairy cows on precision fed rations.Transactions of the ASABE 53(4): 1251-1266.

  • Vasdal G., E.F. Wheeler and K.E. Bøe. 2009. Effect of infrared temperature on thermoregulatory behaviour in suckling piglets. Animal 3: 1449-1454.

  • Wheeler, E.F. G. Vasdal, A. Flø and K.E. Bøe. 2008. Static space requirements for piglet creep area as influenced by radiant temperature. Transactions of the ASABE 51(1): 271-278.

  • Topper, P.A., E.F. Wheeler, J.S. Zajaczkowski, R.S. Gates, H. Xin, Y. Liang, and K.D. Casey. 2008. Ammonia emissions from two empty broiler houses with built-up litter. Transactions of the ASABE, 51 (1):219-225.
  • Green, A. R., R. S. Gates, L. M. Lawrence and E. F. Wheeler. 2008. Continuous recording reliability analysis of three monitoring systems for horse core body temperature. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 61:88-95.
  • Patterson, P. H., Adrizal, R. M. Hulet, R. M. Bates, D. A. Despot, E. F. Wheeler, P. A. Topper. 2008. The potential for plants to trap emissions from farms with laying hens: 1. Ammonia. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 17:54-63.
  • Casey, K. D., R. S. Gates, E. F. Wheeler, H. Xin, Y. Liang, A. J. Pescatore, and M. J. Ford. 2008. On-farm fan performance: Implications for ventilation and operating cost. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 17(2):283-295.
  • Blanes-Vidal, V., P.A. Topper and E.F. Wheeler. 2007. Validation of ammonia emissions from dairy cow manure estimated with a non-steady state, recirculation flux chamber with whole building emissions. Transactions of the ASABE 50(2):633-640.
  • R.S. Gates, K.D. Casey, E.F. Wheeler, H. Xin and A.J. Pescatore. 2007. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory. Atmospheric Environment: 42(14):3342-3350.
  • Pawar, S.R., J.M. Cimbala, E.F. Wheeler and D.V. Lindberg. 2007. Analysis of poultry house ventilation using computation fluid dynamics. Transactions of the ASABE 50(4):1373-1382.
  • Wheeler, E.F., K.D. Casey, R.S. Gates, H. Xin, J.L. Zajaczkowski, P.A. Topper, Y. Liang and A.J. Pescatore. 2006. Ammonia emissions from twelve USA broiler chicken houses. Transactions of ASABE 49(5):1495-1512.
  • Wheeler, E.F., N.K. Diehl, J.L. Zajaczkowski and D. Brown. 2006. Particulate matter characterization in equestrian riding arenas. Transactions of ASABE 49(5):1529-1538.
  • Sabeh, N.C., E.F. Wheeler, P.H. Heinemann, and D.M. Beyer. 2006. Environmental conditions within small-scale Agaricus bisporus mushroom production rooms. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(6):907-917.
  • Gay, S.W., E. F. Wheeler, J. L. Zajaczkowski, and P. A. Topper. 2006. Ammonia emissions from U.S. tom turkey grow out and brooder houses under cold weather mechanical ventilation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(1):127-134.
  • Mathieu, J., Linker, R., Levine, L., Albright, L., Both, A.J., Spanswick, R., Wheeler, R., Wheeler, E, deVilliers, D., Langhans, R. 2006. Evaluation of the Nicolet Model for Simulation of Short-term Hydroponic Lettuce Growth and Nitrate Uptake. Biosystems Engineering 95(3):323-337.
  • Liang, Y., H. Xin, E.F. Wheeler, R. S. Gates, H. Li, J.S. Zajaczkowski, P. Topper, K.D. Casey, B.R. Behrends, D.J. Burnham and F.J. Zajaczkowski. 2005. Ammonia emissions from U.S. laying hen houses in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Transactions of ASAE 48(5):1927-1941.
  • Sabeh, N.C., E.F. Wheeler, D.M. Beyer and P.H. Heinemann. 2005. Environmental control strategies in Agaricus bisporus production rooms and their effects on mushroom quality. Mushroom News 53(1):6-12.
  • Govere, E. M., M. Tonegawa, M.A.Bruns, E. F. Wheeler, P. H. Heinemann, K. B. Kephart and J. Dec. 2005. Deodorization of swine manure using minced horseradish roots and peroxides. J. Agriculture, Food and Chemistry. 53, 4880-4889.
  • Gates, R.S., H. Xin, K.D. Casey, Y. Liang, E. F. Wheeler. 2005. Method for Measuring Ammonia Emission from Poultry Houses. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14(3):622-634.
  • Liang, Y, H. Xin H. Li, R.S. Gates, E.F. Wheeler and K.D. Casey. 2005. Effect of measurement interval on estimation of ammonia emission rates for layer houses. Transactions of ASAE: 49(1):183-186.
  • Gates, R.S., K.D. Casey, H. Xin, E.F. Wheeler and J.D. Simmons. 2004. Fan assessment and numeration system (FANS) design and calibration specifications. Transactions of ASAE: 47(5):1709-1715.
  • Li, H., H. Xin, Y. Liang, R.S. Gates, E.F. Wheeler, and A.J. Heber. 2004. Comparison of direct vs. indirect ventilation rate determinations in layer barns using manure belts. Transactions of the ASAE: 48(1):367-372.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J. L. Zajaczkowski, N. C. Sabeh. 2003. Field evaluation of temperature and velocity uniformity in tunnel and conventional ventilation broiler houses. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 19(3):367-377.
  • Wheeler, E.F., J.L. Zajaczkowski and R.E. Graves. 2003. Effect of solar shielding on portable datalogger temperature readings. Journal of Applied Engineering in Agriculture 19(4):473-481.
  • Gay, S.W., E.F. Wheeler and K.B. Kephart. 2001. Reliability of odor offensiveness quantification using the refined cloth swatch olfactometric technique. Transactions of ASAE 44(6)1895-1900.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J. L. Smith, R. W. J. Weiss, R. M. Hulet. 2000. Temperature stratification and fuel use during winter conditions in three Pennsylvania broiler houses. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 9(4):551-563.
  • Wheeler, E. F., R. W. J. Weiss and E. Weidenboerner. 2000. Evaluation of instrumentation for the measurement of aerial ammonia in poultry housing. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 9(4):443-452.
  • Wilson, L. L., J. L. Smith, D.L. Smith, D. L. Swanson, T. R. Drake, D. R. Wolfgang, and E. F. Wheeler. 2000. Characteristics of veal calves upon arrival at 28 and 84 days and the end of the production cycle. Journal of Dairy Science 83(4):843-854.
  • Wood, S. L., E. F. Wheeler and R. D. Berghage. 2000. Removal of dimethyl disulfide and p-cresol from swine facility wastewater using constructed wetlands. Transactions of ASAE 43(4):973-979.

Selected Conference Papers 2000-2015

  • Hile, M.L. and E. Fabian-Wheeler. 2015. Gypsum bedding impact on hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages. Proceedings of Dairy Environmental Systems and Climate Adaptation Conference. July 2015. Ithaca NY. USA. 13 pages.

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E. M.L. Hile and R.C. Brandt. 2015. Gypsum bedding impact on operator exposure to hydrogen sulfide from dairy manure storages. ASABE Paper No. 2182514. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 10 pages.

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E., R.C. Brandt, M.L. Hile and R. Mikesell. 2015. Humic manure additive reduces odor from Pennsylvania swine finishing operation. ASABE Paper No. 2182471. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 15 pages.

  • Hile, M.L., R.C. Brandt, A.L. Allen and E. Fabian-Wheeler. 2015. Reducing odor emissions using subsurfer litter application technology. ASABE Paper No. 2182493. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 8 pages.

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E.E. 2014. Ventilation impact on environment of horse stables and indoor riding arenas during cold weather. [also in French: Impact de la ventilation sur l’ambiance des écuries et manèges en conditions froides.] Proceedings Equi-meeting Infrastructures. Hara national du Lion d’Angers. France. www.equimeeting.com. pp: 98-104.

  • Brandt, R.C., H.A. Elliott, M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, E.F. Wheeler, T. E. Johnston, W.E. Toffey, J. Golembeski. 2010. Statistical confidence of field olfactometry and biosolids odor assessment. In Proceedings: Water Environment Federation Residuals and Biosolids Conference 2010. Savannah, GA.

  • Wheeler, E.F., M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, R.C. Brandt, P. A. Topper, D. A. Topper, H. A. Elliott, R. E. Graves, A. N. Hristov, V. A. Ishler and M.A. Bruns. 2010. Amendments for mitigation of odor emissions from dairy manure: Preliminary screening. ASABE Paper No. 1008658. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI.

  • Wheeler, E.F., A. Adviento-Borbe, R. C. Brandt, P. A. Topper, D. A. Topper, H A. Elliott, R. E. Graves, A. N. Hristov, V. A. Ishler, M. V. Bruns. 2010. Amendments for mitigation of dairy manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions: Preliminary screening. ASABE Paper No. 1008662. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI.

  • Wheeler, E.F., M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, R.C. Brandt, M.A. Bruns, P.A. Topper, H.A. Elliott, A.N. Hristov, V.A. Ishler, D. A. Topper, R. E. Graves, R.S. Thomas, G.A. Varga. 2010. Dairy manure amendment effects on odor and gas emissions. Paper No. CSBE10644. XVIIth World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR).

  • Wheeler, E.F., P.A. Topper, M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, R.C. Brandt, D.A. Topper, H.A. Elliott. 2010. Flux chamber validation for ammonia measurement versus whole room emission. Paper No. CSBE10656. XVIIth World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR).

  • Wheeler, E. F., M. A. A. Adviento-Borbe, R. C. Brandt, P. A. Topper, D. A. Topper, H. A. Elliot, R. E. Graves, A. N. Hristov, V. A. Ishler, and M. A. Bruns. 2010. Amendments for Short- and Medium-Term Mitigation of Odor Emissions from Dairy Manure. In Proceedings: International Symposium on Air Quality and Manure Management for Agriculture. Dallas, TX. Publication Number 711P0510cd.  ASABE. St. Joseph, MI.  8 pages.

  • Wheeler, E. F., P. H. Patterson, H. Xin, R. S. Gates, C. Gregory, A. Y. Pekel, H. K. Burley, Adrizal, P. A. Topper, and M. A. A. Adviento-Borbe. 2010. Ammonia emission, manure nutrients and egg production of laying hens fed distiller dried grain diets. In Proceedings: International Symposium on Air Quality and Manure Management for Agriculture. Dallas, TX. Publication Number 711P0510cd.  ASABE. St. Joseph, MI.  8 pages.

  • Stowell, R., J. Heemstra, R. Sheffield, K. Janni, and E. Wheeler. 2010. Using webcasts to highlight air quality research. In Proceedings: International Symposium on Air Quality and Manure Management for Agriculture. Dallas, TX. Publication Number 711P0510cd.  ASABE. St. Joseph, MI.  5 pages.

  • Hristov, A. N., C. Lee, T. Cassidy, M. Long, K. Heyler, E. Wheeler and P. Topper. 2010. Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids on Ammonia and Methane Emitting Potential of Dairy Manure. In Proceedings: International Symposium on Air Quality and Manure Management for Agriculture. Dallas, TX. Publication Number 711P0510cd.  ASABE. St. Joseph, MI.  8 pages.

  • Brandt, R.C., H.A. Elliott, M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe, E. Wheeler, P.J.A. Kleinman and D.B. Beegle. 2009. Influence of manure application method on odor emission American Society of Agronomy International Meeting. Pittsburgh, PA. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. (Abstracts) Paper #53418.

  • Brandt, R.C., H.A. Elliott, M.A.A. Adviento-Borbe and E.F. Wheeler. 2009. Field olfactometry for odor related decision-making. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 096134 (not written?). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI (poster).

  • Williams, M.K., T.L. Richard and E.F. Wheeler. 2008. Evaluating the interaction of transport mechanisms through dairy manure to determine the effects on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. ORBIT2008. Wageningen, The Netherlands. 7 pp.

  • Wheeler, E. F., K. Casey, R. Gates, H. Xin, Y. Liang, and P. Topper. 2008. Ammonia emissions from commercial broiler chicken houses under three litter management strategies. Proceedings of the Mitigation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. 5 pp.
  • Liang, Y. H. Xin H. Li, R.S. Gates, E.F. Wheeler and K.D. Casey. 2008. Dietary manipulation to reduce ammonia emission from high-rise layer houses. Mitigation of Air Emission from Animal feeding Operations. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. 4 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., A. Adviento-Borbe, P. A. Topper, N. E, Brown and G. Varga. 2008. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from freestall barn manure with dairy cows on reduced-protein silage diets. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 084370. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 15 pp.
  • Topper, P. A., R. C. Brandt, A. Adviento-Borbe, A.J. Heinrichs, G.J. Lascano and E.F. Wheeler. 2008. Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high-forage and high-concentrate diets. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 084905. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 12 pp.
  • Brandt, R.C., H.A. Elliott, A. Adviento-Borbe and E.F. Wheeler. 2008. Agricultural field olfactometry measurements and high value decision-making. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 084939. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 16 pp.
  • Williams, M. K., T. L. Richard and E. F. Wheeler. 2008. The use of bio-drying and composting as a method for improving the handling of sand-laden dairy manure. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 085171. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 10 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., P. A. Topper, N. E. Brown and G. A. Varga. 2007. Multiple- Chamber Steady-State Gas Emission Detection from Dairy Manure Slurry. CD-ROM Proceedings of International Symposium on Air Quality and Waste Management for Agriculture. ASABE Publication Number 701P0907cd, St. Joseph, MI.
  • Wheeler, E. F., P. A. Topper, and T. L. Richard. 2007. Validation of Flux Chamber Technique for Estimating Gas Emission in Situ from Naturally-Ventilated Facilities. CD-ROM Proceedings of International Symposium on Air Quality and Waste Management for Agriculture. ASABE Publication Number 701P0907cd, St. Joseph, MI.
  • Wheeler, E.F. K.E. Boe, G. Vasdal and A. Flo. 2007. Static space requirement for creep area as influenced by temperature and piglet resting behavior. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 074085. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 19 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., R. S. Gates, H. Xin, K. Casey, P. Topper and Y. Liang. 2007. Ammonia emissions from laying hen and broiler houses in the U.S.A. In Proceedings Ammonia Emissions in Agriculture, eds. G-J Monteny and E. Hartung. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp: 178-179.
  • Casey, K. D., R. S. Gates, E. F. Wheeler, H. Xin, and Y. Liang. 2007. Quantifying measurement uncertainty for the mulit-state broiler ammonia emissions project. In Proceedings Ammonia Emissions in Agriculture, eds. G-J Monteny and E. Hartung. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp: 343-344.
  • Wheeler, E. F., P.A. Topper, Y. G.A. Varga, N. Brown, R.E Graves. V. Ishler, A.J. Heinrichs. V Blanes Vidal. 2006. Ammonia emission monitoring using flux chamber methods. In Proceedings World Congress: Agricultural Engineering for a Better World. Bonn, Germany. Abstract pp 439-440; Full paper 8 pp on CD.
  • V. Blanes, P. Topper, E.F. Wheeler. 2006. Development and validation of a static flux chamber for measuring ammonia emission from dairy cow manure. In Proceedings World Congress: Agricultural Engineering for a Better World. Bonn, Germany. Abstract pp 431-432; Full paper 8 pp on CD.
  • Wheeler, E.F., P.A. Topper, G.A. Varga, N. Brown, V. Blanes-Vidal, A.J. Heinrichs, T.L. Richard. R.E. Graves and V. Ishler, G.I. Zanton, and M.L. Moody. 2006. Reducing ammonia emission from dairy housing using nutritional strategies. In Proceedings Agricultural Air Quality Workshop, Washington DC. pp. 1229-1235.
  • Gates, R.S., K.D. Casey, E.F. Wheeler and H. Xin. 2006. Estimating annual NH3 emissions from US broiler facilities. In Proceedings Agricultural Air Quality Workshop, Washington DC. pp. 205-207.
  • Casey, K.D., R.S. Gates, A.J. Pescatore, H. Xin, Y. Liang, E.F. Wheeler. 2006. Comparison of measured estimates of annual ammonia emissions from poultry production facilities with mass balance modeling approach. In Proceedings Agricultural Air Quality Workshop, Washington DC. pp. 542-545.
  • Liang, Y., H. Xin, L. Hong, E.F. Wheeler, R.S. Gates. 2005. Effect of measurement intervals on estimation of annual emission rates from layer houses. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 05-0405. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 5 pp.
  • Wheeler, E.F., P.A. Topper, R.E. Graves and M.A. Bruns. 2005. Odor reduction in swine wastewater constructed wetland. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 05-4065. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 25 pp.
  • Gay, S.W., E.F. Wheeler, J.L. Zajaczkowski and P.A. Topper. 2005. Ammonia emissions from U.S. tom turkey grow out and brooder houses under cold weather mechanical ventilation. ASABE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 05-4034. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 16 pp.
  • E.F. Wheeler, N.K. Diehl, J. L. Zajaczkowski, D. Brown. 2005. Horse Riding Arena Dust Measurements. In Proceedings Seventh International Livestock Environment Symposium. Beijing, China. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI.
  • Gates, R.S., K.D. Casey, A.J. Pescatore, E.F. Wheeler and H. Xin. 2005. Assessing annual U.S. broiler chicken house emissions. In Proceedings Air and Waste Management Association 98th Annual Conference & Exhibition: Exploring Innovative Solutions. Paper No. 1292. Pittsburgh, PA: A&WMA. 8 pp on CD.
  • Wheeler, E. F., H. Xin, R. S. Gates, K.D. Casey, J. S. Zajaczkowski, P.A. Topper, Y. Liang, D. Brown. 2004. Ventilation capacity estimates in commercial broiler houses using actual and rated fan data. In Proceedings AgEng Leuven 2004, Engineering the Future. Leuven, Belgium. 8 pp on CD.
  • Casey, K.D., R.S. Gates, E.F. Wheeler, H. Xin, J.L. Zajaczkowski, P.A., Topper and Y. Liang. 2004. Ammonia Emissions from Kentucky Broiler Houses during Winter, Spring and Summer. In Proceedings Air and Waste Management Association 97th Annual Conference & Exhibition: Sustainable Development: Gearing Up for the Challenge. Paper No. 629. Pittsburgh, PA: A&WMA. 8 pp on CD.
  • Wheeler, E. F., H. Xin, R. S. Gates, Y. Liang, K.D. Casey, J.L. Zajaczkowski and P.A. Topper. 2004. Air quality from layers, turkeys and broilers. In Proceedings 2004 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium. Editors J.B. Hess and K.D. Roberson. October 24-26. pp. 121-126.
  • Wheeler, E.F., K.D. Casey, R.S. Gates, J.L. Zajaczkowski, P.A. Topper, H. Xin, Y. Liang and D. Brown. 2004. Seasonal ammonia emission variation among twelve U.S. broiler houses. ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 04-4105. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI. 24 pp.
  • Liang, Y., H. Xin, E.F. Wheeler, R.S. Gates, H. Li, J.S. Zajaczkowski, P. Topper and K.D. Casey. 2004. Ammonia Emissions from U.S. Layer Houses. ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 04-4104. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI. 20 pp.
  • Li, H., H. Xin, Y. Liang, R.S. Gates, E.F. Wheeler, and A.J. Heber. 2004. Comparison of Direct vs. Indirect Ventilation Rate Determination for Manure Belt Laying Hen Houses. ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting Paper No. 04-4177. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI. 11 pp.
  • Casey, K. D., R. S. Gates, E. F. Wheeler, H. Xin, J. Zajaczkowski, P. A. Topper, Y. Liang. 2003. Ammonia emissions from Kentucky broiler houses during winter and spring. In Proceedings of the National Clean Air Conference: Linking Air Pollution Science, Policy and Management. Newcastle, Australia.CASANZ. 5 pp on CD.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J. S. Zajaczkowski, P. A. Topper, R. S. Gates, H. Xin, K. D. Casey, Y. Liang. June 2003. Ammonia emissions from broiler houses in Pennsylvania during cold weather. In Proceedings International Symposium: Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities. Jutland, Denmark. June 1-4, 8 pp.
  • Liang, Y., H. Xin, A. Tanaka, S. H. Lee, H. Li, E. F. Wheeler, R. S. Gates, J. S. Zajaczkowski, P. Topper, K. D. Casey. June 2003. Ammonia emissions from layer houses in Iowa. International Symposium: Gaseous and Odour emissions from animal production facilities. Jutland, Denmark. June 1-4, 10 pp.
  • Casey, K. D., R. S. Gates, E. F. Wheeler, J. S. Zajaczkowski, P. A. Topper, H. Xin, Y. Liang. June 2003. Ammonia emissions from broiler houses in Kentucky during winter. International Symposium: Gaseous and Odour emissions from animal production facilities. Jutland, Denmark. June 1-4, 8 pp.
  • Lawrence, L. J. R. Bicudo, E. Wheeler. 2003. Horse manure characteristics literature and database review. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes IX. Raleigh, NC. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 277-284.
  • Xin, H., A. Tanaka, R. S. Gates, E. F. Wheeler, K. D. Casey, A. J. Heber, J. Q. Ni & H. Li. 2003. Ammonia emissions from U.S. poultry houses: Part 1 measurement system and techniques. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations III. Raleigh, NC. ASAE, St. Josephs, MI. pp. 106-115.
  • Liang, Y. H. Xin, A. Tanaka, S. H. Lee, H. Li, E. F. Wheeler, R. S. Gates. J. S. Zajaczkowski, P. Topper, & K. D. Casey. 2003. Ammonia emission from U. S. poultry houses: Part II layer houses. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations III. Raleigh, NC. ASAE, St. Josephs, MI. pp. 147- 158.
  • Wheeler, E. F., K. D. Casey, J. S. Zajaczkowski, P. A. Topper, R. S. Gates, H. Xin, Y. Liang, A. Tanaka. 2003. Ammonia emission from U. S. poultry houses: Part III broiler houses. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations III. Raleigh, NC. ASAE, St. Josephs, MI. pp. 159-166.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J. L. Zajaczkowski, N.K Diehl. 2003. Temperature and humidity in indoor riding arenas during cold weather. Paper No. 03-4090. ASAE Annual International Meeting. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI. 20 pp.
  • Green, A. R., J. L. Purswell, J. D. Davis, R. S. Gates, L. M. Lawrence, R. J. Coleman, E. F. Wheeler. 2003. Methods for assessing horse well being during transport. Paper No. 03- 4092. ASAE Annual International Meeting. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI. 14 pp.
  • Castillo, H.A., E. F. Wheeler, R. E. Graves, and M. A. Bruns. 2003. Bacterial community composition and function related to odor removal in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating animal wastes. Abstract in Proceedings of the 103rd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. p. 559.
  • Castillo, H. A., E. F. Wheeler, R. E. Graves, E. M. Petre, and M. A. Bruns. 2003. Iron-reducing biofilms communities abate odor from swine manure slurries. Abstract in Proceedings of Biofilms 2003 Conference, Victoria Island, BC, Canada. American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. p 96.
  • Casey, K.D. E.F. Wheeler. R.S. Gates, H. Xin, P.A. Topper, J.S. Zajaczkowski, Y. Liang, A.J. Heber, and L.D. Jacobson. 2002. Quality assured measurements of livestock building emissions: Part 4. Building Ventilation Rate. Proceedings of Symposium on Air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology. San Francisco CA. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA. 13 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F. 2002. Overview of strategies to reduce emissions. Proceedings of National Poultry Waste Management Conference, Birmingham AL, Natl. Poultry Waste Mgmt Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL. pp 99-104.
  • Gates, R. S., H. Xin, and E. F. Wheeler. 2002. Ammonia losses, evaluations and solutions for poultry systems. Proceedings of National Poultry Waste Management Conference, Eds. P.H. Patterson, J.P. Blake and K.D. Roberson. Birmingham AL. Natl. Poultry Waste Mgmt Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL. pp 79-88.
  • Long, A.H. and E. F. Wheeler. 2002. Humidity ratio difference as an indicator of stale air conditions in layer hen housing. Paper No. 02-4223. ASAE Annual International Meeting. ASAE. St. Joseph, MI. 13 pp.
  • Sabeh, N. and E. F. Wheeler. 2002. Temporal and spatial evaluations of environmental conditions within small-scale Agaricus bisporus mushroom production rooms. Paper No. 02-4115. Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI . 17 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., R.S. Gates, H. Xin, J.S. Zajaczkowski, P.A. Topper and K.D. Casey. 2002. Field estimation of ventilation capacity using FANS. Paper No. 02-4125. Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI . 11 pp.
  • Gates, R.S., J.D. Simmons, K.D. Casey, T.J. Greis, H. Xin, E. F. Wheeler, C.L. King and J.R. Barnett. 2002. Fan Assessment Numeration System (FANS) design and calibration specifications. Paper No. 02-4124. Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI . 13 pp.
  • Xin, H., A. Tanaka, T. Wang, R.S. Gates, E. F. Wheeler, K. D. Casey, A. J. Heber, J. Ni, and T. Lim. 2002. A portable system for continuous ammonia measurement in the field. Technical paper No. 024168. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 16 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., R. E. Graves, J. L. Zajaczkowski, J. T. Tyson, D. F. McFarland, and P. Richie. 2001. Protocol for determination of environmental parameters in animal housing. Proceedings of Sixth International Livestock Environment Symposium. ASAE, Louisville, KY. St. Josephs, MI. pp. 359-366.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J L. Zajaczkowski, and R. E. Graves. 2001. Horse facility temperature and humidity during winter conditions. Proceedings of Sixth International Livestock Environment Symposium, Louisville, KY. ASAE, St. Josephs, MI. pp. 386-393.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J. L. Zajaczkowski, N. C. Sabeh. 2001. Field evaluation of broiler house tunnel and sidewall ventilation. Paper No. 01-4112. Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI . 17 pp.
  • Hawke, A. S., E. F. Wheeler, P. H. Patterson, H. B. Manbeck. 2001. Moisture production rates of white leghorn layers with up to eight days of manure storage. Paper No. 01-4065. Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI . 8 pp.
  • Sabeh, N., E. F. Wheeler, P. H. Heinemann, D. M. Beyer. 2001. Improving Agaricus bisporus mushroom quality through improved air distribution methods. Paper No. 01- 4088. Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI .17 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F. 2000. Greenhouse barns—Ventilation Design and Challenges for Livestock Production. Proceedings of 15th International Congress for Plastics in Agriculture and the 29th National Agricultural Plastics Congress. Atlantic City, NJ. American Society of Plasticulture. State College, PA. pp. 73-81.
  • Wheeler, E. F., J. L. Smith and R. M. Hulet. 2000. Ammonia volatilization from litter during nine broiler flocks. Proceedings of Second International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. Des Moines, IA. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 25-32.
  • Wheeler, E. F., and T. T. Hoang, R. D. Berghage and R. D. Shannon. 2000. Nitrogen removal rates from greenhouse wastewater using constructed wetlands. Proceedings of Eighth International Symposium on Animal, Agricultural, and Food Processing Waste. Des Moines, IA ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 746-752.
  • Wood, S. L. and E. F. Wheeler. 2000. Malodor reduction in liquid swine manure treated in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Proceedings of Second International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. Des Moines, IA ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 59-66.

Extension Outreach Publications

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E. and M. Hile 2015. Manure storage design and safety considerations with gypsum bedding. Fact Sheet E-70, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  2 pp.

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E. 2015. Resources for ventilation of livestock housing. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  4 pp.

  • Fabian (Wheeler) E. 2002-2015 (updated annually).  Horse stable and riding arena resources.  Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Fact Sheet G-106, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  2 pp.

  • Brandt, R.C. H.A. Elliott, E.E. Fabian, M.L. Hile and R.E. Mikesell. 2014. Manure additive shows swine odor reduction. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet G-111, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  5 pp

  • Hile, M. and E. Fabian-Wheeler. 2014. Safety risk from manure storages of dairy cows bedded with gypsum.  Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet G-112, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  2 pp

  • Wang-Li, L, O.D. Simmons III, E. F. Wheeler. 2012. Bioaerosol sampling in animal environments. Air Quality Education in Animal Agriculture, eXtension. 15pp.

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E. 2012. Evaluating air quality in livestock housing environments. Air Quality Education in Animal Agriculture, eXtension. 14pp.

  • Fabian-Wheeler, E., M. Hile, D. Schmidt. 2012. Odor measurement for animal agriculture. Air Quality Education in Animal Agriculture, eXtension. 20pp.

  • Wheeler, E.F. 2009. Ammonia monitoring in animal environments using simple instruments. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet G-110, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  2 pp

  • Wheeler, E.F and S. Shortle. 2009. Air Quality-Impact and Regulatory Issues. Ag a la Carte, Lunchtime Webinar Series Presents: Manure Du Jour. Penn State College of Ag Sciences, University Park, PA. 1 pp.

  • Wheeler, E.F., S. Shortle, R. Brandt, R. Meinen and K.S. Blunke.2009. Air Quality and Animal Agriculture: The Basics. Ag a la Carte, Manure Du Jour fact sheet. Penn State College of Ag Sciences, University Park, PA. 2 pp.

  • Wheeler, E. F. and J. L. Zajaczkowski. 2006. Riding arena footing material selection and management. Horse Facilities 6. College of Agricultural Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 8 pp.

  • Wheeler, E. F. 2003. Horse stable ventilation. Horse Facilities 7. College of Agricultural Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 16 pp. ASAE Blue Ribbon Award, Educational Aids Competition, Bulletin category
  • Wheeler, E. F. 2002. Selecting tunnel ventilation fans. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet G-103, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. 4 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., and A. J. Both. 2002. Evaluating greenhouse mechanical ventilation system performance. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet I-42, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. 4 pp. [Joint publication with Rutgers University]
  • Wheeler, E. F., and A. J. Both. 2002. Evaluating greenhouse ventilation fan capacity. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet I-43, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 4 pp. [Joint publication with Rutgers University, NJ]
  • Wheeler, E. F., and A. J. Both. 2002. Inlet evaluation in greenhouse mechanical ventilation systems. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet I-44, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 3 pp. [Joint publication with Rutgers University, NJ]
  • Wheeler, E. F. and J. L. Zajaczkowski. 2002. Horse stall design. Horse Facilities 1. College of Agricultural Sciences. Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 6 pp. ASABE Blue Ribbon Award, Educational Aids Competition. Award given to Horse Facilities 1 through 6 in Series category.
  • J.L. Zajaczkowski and E. F. Wheeler. 2002. Fire safety in horse stables. Horse Facilities 2. College of Agricultural Sciences. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park PA. 15 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F., and J. L. Zajaczkowski. 2002. Horse stable manure management. Horse Facilities 3. College of Agricultural Sciences. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 15 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F. and J. L. Zajaczkowski. 2002. Horse stable flooring materials and drainage. Horse Facilities 4. College of Agricultural Sciences. Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 11 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F. and J. L. Zajaczkowski. 2002. Fence planning for horses. Horse Facilities 5. College of Agricultural Sciences, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park PA. 12 pp.
  • Wheeler, E. F. and J. L. Zajaczkowski. 2002. Riding arena footing materials. Horse Facilities 6. College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 7 pp. (revised and expanded 2006).
  • Wheeler, E. F., and A. J. Both. 2001. Principles of evaluating greenhouse aerial environments. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet I-40. Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 4 pp. [Joint publication with Rutgers University]
  • Wheeler, E. F., and A. J. Both. 2001. Instruments for monitoring the greenhouse aerial environment. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet I-41, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 12 pp. [Joint publication with Rutgers University]
  • Wheeler, E. F. 2000. Ventilating Greenhouse Barns—Guidelines for livestock production. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fact Sheet G-102, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. 4 pp.